2017 was a year marked by mini-upsets in the business world that, taken together, represented a changing of the old guard and a new establishment taking shape.

The value of transactions made using payment cards exceeded those in cash for the first-time last year, according to the British Retail Consortium.

Technology fuelled a revolution which saw upstarts in retail, manufacturing and finance overtake long-established players. Whether it was payment cards or Bitcoin trumping cash or currencies, or the battery coming of age over the internal combustion engine, these were seminal moments.

Some may have mistakenly thought such a landmark had been reached some years ago, but smaller transactions paid with loose change always accumulated to swing the balance in favour of cash.

The innovation of using contactless, where you can wave your card in front of a payment machine without having to enter a pin, has however meant more people are using cards for buying lower value items. Contactless now accounts for a third of all card purchases, up from 10% in October 2015.

The introduction of lower transaction fees and handling charges also had an impact. Retailers are now more willing to invest in systems to accept card payments after reduced charges were forced through by the EU under its interchange fee regulation.

Read more here on the rise of Bitcoin and other moments in 2017.